`dstar2tgba`

## Table of Contents

This tool converts automata into transition-based generalized Büchi
automata, a.k.a., TGBA. It can also produce Büchi automata on request
(`-B`

). It's usage is almost similar to `ltl2tgba`

except that
instead of supplying a formula to translate, you should specify a
filename containing the automaton to convert.

In earlier version (before Spot 1.99.4) `dstar2tgba`

was only able to
read automata written in the format output by `ltl2dstar`

. However
nowadays it can read automata in any of the supported formats (HOA,
LBTT's format, ltl2dstar's format, and never claims). Also
`dstar2tgba`

used to be the only tool being able to read ltl2dstar's
format, but today this format can also be read by any of the tool that
read automata. So in practice, running `dstar2tgba some files...`

produces the same result as running ```
autfilt --tgba --high --small
some files...
```

.

## Two quick examples

Here are some brief examples before we discuss the behavior of
`dstar2tgba`

in more detail.

### From Rabin to Büchi

The following command instructs `ltl2dstar`

to:

- run
`ltl2tgba -Ds`

to build a Büchi automaton for`(a U b) & GFb`

, and then - convert that Büchi automaton into a deterministic Rabin automaton
(DRA) stored in
`fagfb`

.

Additionally we use `ltlfilt`

to convert our formula to the
prefix format used by `ltl2dstar`

.

```
ltlfilt -f '(a U b) & GFb' -l | ltl2dstar --ltl2nba=spin:ltl2tgba@-Ds - fagfb
```

By looking at the file `fagfb`

you can see the `ltl2dsar`

actually
produced a 4-state DRA:

cat fagfb

DRA v2 explicit Comment: "DBA2DRA[NBA=3]" States: 4 Acceptance-Pairs: 1 Start: 1 AP: 2 "a" "b" --- State: 0 Acc-Sig: 0 0 0 0 State: 1 Acc-Sig: 0 1 3 3 State: 2 Acc-Sig: 2 2 3 3 State: 3 Acc-Sig: +0 2 2 3 3

Let's display this automaton with `autfilt`

:

autfilt fagfb --dot

`dstar2tgba`

can now be used to convert this DRA into a TGBA, a BA, or
a Monitor, using the same options as `ltl2tgba`

.

For instance here is the conversion to a Büchi automaton (`-B`

):

dstar2tgba -B fagfb -d

Note that by default the output is not complete. Use `-C`

if you want
a complete automaton.

But we could as well require the output as a never claim for Spin (option `-s`

):

dstar2tgba -s fagfb

never { T0_init: if :: ((a) && (!(b))) -> goto T0_init :: (b) -> goto accept_S2 fi; T0_S1: if :: (!(b)) -> goto T0_S1 :: (b) -> goto accept_S2 fi; accept_S2: if :: (!(b)) -> goto T0_S1 :: (b) -> goto accept_S2 fi; }

## Details

### General behavior

The `dstar2tgba`

tool implements a 4-step process:

- read the automaton
- convert it into TGBA
- postprocess the resulting TGBA (simplifying the automaton, a degeneralizing it into a BA or Monitor if requested)
- output the resulting automaton

BTW, the above scenario is also exactly what you get with `autfilt`

if
you run it as `autfilt --tgba --high --small`

. (This is true only
since version 1.99.4, since both tools can now read the same file
formats.)

### Controlling output

The last two steps are shared with `ltl2tgba`

and use the same options.

The type of automaton to produce can be selected using the `-B`

or `-M`

switches:

-B, --ba Büchi Automaton (implies -S) --cobuchi, --coBuchi automaton with co-Büchi acceptance (will recognize a superset of the input language if not co-Büchi realizable) -C, --complete output a complete automaton -G, --generic any acceptance condition is allowed -M, --monitor Monitor (accepts all finite prefixes of the given property) -p, --colored-parity[=any|min|max|odd|even|min odd|min even|max odd|max even] colored automaton with parity acceptance -P, --parity[=any|min|max|odd|even|min odd|min even|max odd|max even] automaton with parity acceptance -S, --state-based-acceptance, --sbacc define the acceptance using states --tgba Transition-based Generalized Büchi Automaton (default)

And these may be refined by a simplification goal, should the post-processor routine had a choice to make:

-a, --any no preference, do not bother making it small or deterministic -D, --deterministic prefer deterministic automata (combine with --generic to be sure to obtain a deterministic automaton) --small prefer small automata (default)

The effort put into post-processing can be limited with the `--low`

or
`--medium`

options:

--high all available optimizations (slow, default) --low minimal optimizations (fast) --medium moderate optimizations

For instance using `-a --low`

will skip any optional post-processing,
should you find `dstar2tgba`

too slow.

Finally, the output format can be changed with the following common ouput options:

-8, --utf8 enable UTF-8 characters in output (ignored with --lbtt or --spin) --check[=PROP] test for the additional property PROP and output the result in the HOA format (implies -H). PROP may be some prefix of 'all' (default), 'unambiguous', 'stutter-invariant', 'stutter-sensitive-example', 'semi-determinism', or 'strength'. -d, --dot[=1|a|A|b|B|c|C(COLOR)|e|E|f(FONT)|h|k|K|n|N|o|r|R|s|t|u|v|y|+INT|<INT|#] GraphViz's format. Add letters for (1) force numbered states, (a) show acceptance condition (default), (A) hide acceptance condition, (b) acceptance sets as bullets, (B) bullets except for Büchi/co-Büchi automata, (c) force circular nodes, (C) color nodes with COLOR, (d) show origins when known, (e) force elliptic nodes, (E) force rEctangular nodes, (f(FONT)) use FONT, (g) hide edge labels, (h) horizontal layout, (k) use state labels when possible, (K) use transition labels (default), (n) show name, (N) hide name, (o) ordered transitions, (r) rainbow colors for acceptance sets, (R) color acceptance sets by Inf/Fin, (s) with SCCs, (t) force transition-based acceptance, (u) hide true states, (v) vertical layout, (y) split universal edges by color, (+INT) add INT to all set numbers, (<INT) display at most INT states, (#) show internal edge numbers -H, --hoaf[=1.1|i|k|l|m|s|t|v] Output the automaton in HOA format (default). Add letters to select (1.1) version 1.1 of the format, (i) use implicit labels for complete deterministic automata, (s) prefer state-based acceptance when possible [default], (t) force transition-based acceptance, (m) mix state and transition-based acceptance, (k) use state labels when possible, (l) single-line output, (v) verbose properties --lbtt[=t] LBTT's format (add =t to force transition-based acceptance even on Büchi automata) --name=FORMAT set the name of the output automaton -o, --output=FORMAT send output to a file named FORMAT instead of standard output. The first automaton sent to a file truncates it unless FORMAT starts with '>>'. -q, --quiet suppress all normal output -s, --spin[=6|c] Spin neverclaim (implies --ba). Add letters to select (6) Spin's 6.2.4 style, (c) comments on states --stats=FORMAT, --format=FORMAT output statistics about the automaton

The `--stats`

options can output statistics about the input and the
output automaton, so it can be useful to search for particular
pattern.

For instance here is a complex command that will

- generate an infinite stream of random LTL formulas with
`randltl`

, - use
`ltlfilt`

to rewrite the W and M operators away (`--remove-wm`

), simplify the formulas (`-r`

), remove duplicates (`u`

) as well as formulas that have a size less then 3 (`--size-min=3`

), and keep only the 10 first formulas (`-n 10`

) - loop to process each of these formula:
- print it
- then convert the formula into
`ltl2dstar`

's input format, process it with`ltl2dstar`

(using`ltl2tgba`

as the actual LTL->BA transltor), and process the result with`dstar2tgba`

to build a Büchi automaton (`-B`

), favoring determinism if we can (`-D`

), and finally displaying some statistics about this conversion.

The statistics displayed in this case are: `%S`

, the number of states
of the input (Rabin) automaton, `%s`

, the number of states of the
output (Büchi) automaton, `%d`

, whether the output automaton is
deterministic, and `%p`

whether the automaton is complete.

randltl -n -1 --tree-size=10..14 a b c | ltlfilt --remove-wm -r -u --size-min=3 -n 10 | while read f; do echo "$f" ltlfilt -l -f "$f" | ltl2dstar --ltl2nba=spin:ltl2tgba@-Ds - - | dstar2tgba -B --stats=' DRA: %Sst.; BA: %sst.; det.? %d; complete? %p' done

(b | Fa) R Fc DRA: 9st.; BA: 7st.; det.? 1; complete? 1 Ga U G(!a | Gc) DRA: 7st.; BA: 7st.; det.? 0; complete? 0 GFc DRA: 2st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 1 !a | (a R b) DRA: 3st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 0 Xc R G(b | G!c) DRA: 3st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 0 c & G(b | F(a & c)) DRA: 4st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 1; complete? 0 XXFc DRA: 4st.; BA: 4st.; det.? 1; complete? 1 XFc | Gb DRA: 4st.; BA: 4st.; det.? 1; complete? 1 G((a & F!c) U (!a | Ga)) DRA: 6st.; BA: 4st.; det.? 1; complete? 1 a & !b DRA: 3st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 0

An important point you should be aware of when comparing these numbers
of states is that the deterministic automata produced by `ltl2dstar`

are complete, while the automata produced by `dstar2tgba`

(deterministic or not) are not complete by default. This can explain
a difference of one state (the so called "sink" state).

You can instruct `dstar2tgba`

to output a complete automaton using the
`--complete`

option (or `-C`

for short).

### Conversion of various acceptance conditions to TGBA and BA

Spot implements several acceptance conversion algorithms. There is one generic cases, with some specialized variants.

- Generic case

The most generic one, called

`remove_fin()`

in Spot, takes an automaton with any acceptance condition, and as its name suggests, it removes all the`Fin(x)`

from the acceptance condition: the output is an automaton whose acceptance conditions is a Boolean combination of`Inf(x)`

acceptance primitive. (Such automata with Fin-less acceptance can be easily tested for emptiness using SCC-based emptiness checks.) This algorithm works by fist converting the acceptance conditions into disjunctive normal form, and then removing any`Fin(x)`

acceptance by adding non-deterministic jumps into clones of the SCCs that intersect set`x`

. This is done with a few tricks that limits the numbers of clones, and that ensure that the resulting automaton uses*at most*one extra acceptance sets. This algorithm is not readily available from`dstar2tgba`

, but`autfilt`

has an option`--remove-fin`

if you need it.From an automaton with Fin-less acceptance, one can obtain a TGBA without changing the transitions structure: take the Fin-less acceptance, transform it into conjunctive normal form (CNF), and create one new Fin-accepting set for each conjunct of the CNF. The combination of these two algorithms is implemented by the

`to_generalized_buchi()`

function in Spot.Finally a TGBA can easily be converted into a BA with classical degeneralization algorithms (our version of that includes several SCC-based optimizations described in our SPIN'13 paper).

This generalized case is specialized for two types of acceptances that are common (Rabin and Streett).

- Rabin to BA

When the input is a Rabin automaton, a dedicated conversion to BA is used. This procedure actually works for input that is called Rabin-like, i.e., any acceptance formula that can easily be converted to Rabin by adding some extra Fin or Inf terms to the acceptance conditions and ensuring that those terms are always true.

The conversion implemented is a variation of Krishnan et al.'s "Deterministic ω-Automata vis-a-vis Deterministic Büchi Automata" (ISAAC'94) paper. They explain how to convert a deterministic Rabin automaton (DRA) into a deterministic Büchi automaton (DBA) when such an automaton exist. The surprising result is that when a DRA is DBA-realizable, a DBA can be obtained from the DRA without changing its transition structure.

Spot implements a slight refinement to the above technique by doing it SCC-wise: any DRA will be converted into a BA, and the determinism will be conserved only for strongly connected components where determinism can be conserved. (If some SCC is not DBA-realizable, it will be cloned into several deterministic SCC, but the jumps between these SCCs will be nondeterministic.) Our implementation also work on automata with transition-based acceptance.

This specialized conversion is built in the

`remove_fin()`

procedure described above. - Streett to TGBA

Streett acceptance have a specialized conversion into non-deterministic TGBA. This improved conversion is automatically used by

`to_generalized_buchi()`

.When a Streett automaton uses multiple acceptance pairs, we use generalized acceptance conditions in the TGBA to limit the combinatorial explosion.

A straightforward translation from Streett to BA, as described for instance by Löding's diploma thesis, will create a BA with \(|Q|\cdot(4^n-3^n+2)\) states if the input Streett automaton has \(|Q|\) states and \(n\) acceptance pairs. Our translation to TGBA limits this to \(|Q|\cdot(2^n+1)\) states.

Sometimes, as in the example for

`GFa & GFb`

the output of this conversion happens to be deterministic. This is pure luck: Spot does not implement any algorithm to preserve the determinism of Streett automata.