Table of Contents

Basic usage

This tool synthesizes AIGER circuits from LTL/PSL formulas. ltlsynt is typically called with the following three options:

  • --input: a comma-separated list of input signal names
  • --output: a comma-separated list of output signal names
  • --formula or --file: the LTL/PSL specification.

The following example illustrates the synthesis of an AND gate. We call the two inputs a and b, and the output c. We want the relationship between the inputs and the output to always hold, so we prefix the propositional formula with a G operator:

ltlsynt --input=a,b --output=c --formula 'G (a & b <=> c)'

The output is composed of two sections. The first one is a single line containing either REALIZABLE or UNREALIZABLE, and the second one is an AIGER circuit that satisfies the specification (or nothing if it is unrealizable). In this example, the generated circuit contains, as expected, a single AND gate linking the two inputs to the output.

The following example is unrealizable, because a is an input, so no circuit can guarantee that it will be true eventually.

ltlsynt --input=a --output=b -f 'F a'


ltlsynt was made with the SYNTCOMP competition in mind, and more specifically the TLSF track of this competition. TLSF is a high-level specification language created for the purpose of this competition. Fortunately, the SYNTCOMP organizers also provide a tool called syfco which can translate a TLSF specification to an LTL formula.

The following four steps show you how a TLSF specification called spec.tlsf can be synthesized using syfco and ltlsynt:

LTL=$(syfco FILE -f ltlxba -m fully)
IN=$(syfco FILE -f ltlxba -m fully)
OUT=$(syfco FILE -f ltlxba -m fully)
ltlsynt --formula="$LTL" --input="$IN" --output="$OUT"


The tool reduces the synthesis problem to a parity game, and solves the parity game using Zielonka's recursive algorithm. The full reduction from LTL to parity game is described in a paper yet to be written and published.

You can control the parity game solving step in two ways:

  • By choosing a different algorithm using the --algo option. The default is

rec for Zielonka's recursive algorithm, and as of now the only other available option is qp for Calude et al.'s quasi-polynomial time algorithm.

  • By asking ltlsynt not to solve the game and print it instead (in the

PGSolver format) using the --print-pg option, and leaving you the choice of an external solver such as PGSolver.