autfilt - filter, convert, and transform omega-automata
autfilt [OPTION...] [FILENAME[/COL]...]
Convert, transform, and filter omega-automata.
-F, --file=FILENAME
process the automaton in FILENAME
--trust-hoa=BOOL
If False, properties listed in HOA files are ignored, unless they can be easily verified. If True (the default) any supported property is trusted.
-B, --ba
Büchi Automaton (with state-based acceptance)
--cobuchi, --coBuchi
automaton with co-Büchi acceptance (will recognize a superset of the input language if not co-Büchi realizable)
-C, --complete
output a complete automaton
-G, --generic
any acceptance is allowed (default)
-M, --monitor
Monitor (accepts all finite prefixes of the given property)
-p, --colored-parity[=any|min|max|odd|even|min odd|min even|max odd|max | |
even] |
colored automaton with parity acceptance
-P, --parity[=any|min|max|odd|even|min odd|min even|max odd|max even]
automaton with parity acceptance
-S, --state-based-acceptance, --sbacc
define the acceptance using states
--tgba |
Transition-based Generalized Büchi Automaton |
-8, --utf8
enable UTF-8 characters in output (ignored with --lbtt or --spin)
-c, --count
print only a count of matched automata
--check[=PROP]
test for the additional property PROP and output the result in the HOA format (implies -H). PROP may be any prefix of ’all’ (default), ’unambiguous’, ’stutter-invariant’, or ’strength’.
-d,
--dot[=1|a|A|b|B|c|C(COLOR)|e|f(FONT)|h|k|K|n|N|o|r|R|s|t|u|v|y|+INT|<INT|#]
GraphViz’s format. Add letters for (1) force numbered states, (a) show acceptance condition (default), (A) hide acceptance condition, (b) acceptance sets as bullets, (B) bullets except for Büchi/co-Büchi automata, (c) force circular nodes, (C) color nodes with COLOR, (d) show origins when known, (e) force elliptic nodes, (f(FONT)) use FONT, (g) hide edge labels, (h) horizontal layout, (k) use state labels when possible, (K) use transition labels (default), (n) show name, (N) hide name, (o) ordered transitions, (r) rainbow colors for acceptance sets, (R) color acceptance sets by Inf/Fin, (s) with SCCs, (t) force transition-based acceptance, (u) hide true states, (v) vertical layout, (y) split universal edges by color, (+INT) add INT to all set numbers, (<INT) display at most INT states, (#) show internal edge numbers
-H, --hoaf[=1.1|i|k|l|m|s|t|v]
Output the automaton in HOA format (default). Add letters to select (1.1) version 1.1 of the format, (i) use implicit labels for complete deterministic automata, (s) prefer state-based acceptance when possible [default], (t) force transition-based acceptance, (m) mix state and transition-based acceptance, (k) use state labels when possible, (l) single-line output, (v) verbose properties
--lbtt[=t]
LBTT’s format (add =t to force transition-based acceptance even on Büchi automata)
-n, --max-count=NUM
output at most NUM automata
--name=FORMAT
set the name of the output automaton
-o, --output=FORMAT
send output to a file named FORMAT instead of standard output. The first automaton sent to a file truncates it unless FORMAT starts with ’>>’.
-q, --quiet
suppress all normal output
-s, --spin[=6|c]
Spin neverclaim (implies --ba). Add letters to select (6) Spin’s 6.2.4 style, (c) comments on states
--stats=FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
output statistics about the automaton
Any FORMAT string may use the following interpreted sequences (capitals for input, minuscules for output):
%% |
a single % | ||
%< |
the part of the line before the automaton if it comes from a column extracted from a CSV file | ||
%> |
the part of the line after the automaton if it comes from a column extracted from a CSV file | ||
%A, %a |
number of acceptance sets |
%C, %c, %[LETTERS]C, %[LETTERS]c
number of SCCs; you may filter the SCCs to count using the following LETTERS, possibly concatenated: (a) accepting, (r) rejecting, (c) complete, (v) trivial, (t) terminal, (w) weak, (iw) inherently weak. Use uppercase letters to negate them.
%D, %d |
1 if the automaton is deterministic, 0 otherwise |
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%E, %e |
number of reachable edges |
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%F |
name of the input file |
%G, %g, %[LETTERS]G, %[LETTERS]g
acceptance condition (in HOA syntax); add brackets to print an acceptance name instead and LETTERS to tweak the format: (0) no parameters, (a) accentuated, (b) abbreviated, (d) style used in dot output, (g) no generalized parameter, (l) recognize Street-like and Rabin-like, (m) no main parameter, (p) no parity parameter, (o) name unknown acceptance as ’other’, (s) shorthand for ’lo0’.
%H, %h |
the automaton in HOA format on a single line (use %[opt]H or %[opt]h to specify additional options as in --hoa=opt) | ||
%L |
location in the input file | ||
%M, %m |
name of the automaton | ||
%N, %n |
number of nondeterministic states | ||
%P, %p |
1 if the automaton is complete, 0 otherwise | ||
%r |
wall-clock time elapsed in seconds (excluding parsing) |
%R, %[LETTERS]R
CPU time (excluding parsing), in seconds; Add LETTERS to restrict to(u) user time, (s) system time, (p) parent process, or (c) children processes.
%S, %s |
number of reachable states |
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%T, %t |
number of reachable transitions |
%U, %u, %[LETTER]U, %[LETTER]u
1 if the automaton contains some universal
branching (or a number of [s]tates or [e]dges with
universal branching)
%W, %w |
one word accepted by the automaton |
%X, %x, %[LETTERS]X, %[LETTERS]x
number of atomic propositions declared in the automaton; add LETTERS to list atomic propositions with (n) no quoting, (s) occasional double-quotes with C-style escape, (d) double-quotes with C-style escape, (c) double-quotes with CSV-style escape, (p) between parentheses, any extra non-alphanumeric character will be used to separate propositions
--acc-sccs=RANGE, --accepting-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of non-trivial accepting SCCs is in RANGE
--acc-sets=RANGE
keep automata whose number of acceptance sets is in RANGE
--accept-word=WORD
keep automata that accept WORD
--acceptance-is=NAME|FORMULA
match automata with given accetance condition
--ap=RANGE
match automata with a number of (declared) atomic propositions in RANGE
--are-isomorphic=FILENAME
keep automata that are isomorphic to the automaton in FILENAME
--edges=RANGE
keep automata whose number of edges is in RANGE
--equivalent-to=FILENAME
keep automata that are equivalent (language-wise) to the automaton in FILENAME
--has-exist-branching
keep automata that use existential branching (i.e., make non-deterministic choices)
--has-univ-branching
keep alternating automata that use universal branching
--included-in=FILENAME
keep automata whose languages are included in
that
of the automaton from FILENAME
--inherently-weak-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of accepting inherently-weak SCCs is in RANGE. An accepting SCC is inherently weak if it does not have a rejecting cycle.
--intersect=FILENAME
keep automata whose languages have an non-empty intersection with the automaton from FILENAME
--is-alternating
keep only automata using universal branching
--is-colored
keep colored automata (i.e., exactly one acceptance mark per transition or state)
--is-complete
keep complete automata
--is-deterministic
keep deterministic automata
--is-empty
keep automata with an empty language
--is-inherently-weak
keep only inherently weak automata
--is-semi-deterministic
keep semi-deterministic automata
--is-stutter-invariant keep automata representing stutter-invariant
properties
--is-terminal
keep only terminal automata
--is-unambiguous
keep only unambiguous automata
--is-very-weak
keep only very-weak automata
--is-weak
keep only weak automata
--nondet-states=RANGE
keep automata whose number of nondeterministic states is in RANGE
--rej-sccs=RANGE, --rejecting-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of non-trivial rejecting SCCs is in RANGE
--reject-word=WORD
keep automata that reject WORD
--sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of SCCs is in RANGE
--states=RANGE
keep automata whose number of states is in RANGE
--terminal-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of accepting terminal SCCs is in RANGE. Terminal SCCs are weak and complete.
--triv-sccs=RANGE, --trivial-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of trivial SCCs is in RANGE
--unused-ap=RANGE
match automata with a number of declared, but unused atomic propositions in RANGE
--used-ap=RANGE
match automata with a number of used atomic propositions in RANGE
-u, --unique
do not output the same automaton twice (same in the sense that they are isomorphic)
-v, --invert-match
select non-matching automata
--weak-sccs=RANGE
keep automata whose number of accepting weak SCCs is in RANGE. In a weak SCC, all transitions belong to the same acceptance sets.
RANGE may have one of the following forms: ’INT’, ’INT..INT’, ’..INT’, or ’INT..’
WORD is lasso-shaped and written as ’BF;BF;...;BF;cycle{BF;...;BF}’ where BF are arbitrary Boolean formulas. The ’cycle{...}’ part is mandatory, but the prefix can be omitted.
--cleanup-acceptance
remove unused acceptance sets from the automaton
--cnf-acceptance
put the acceptance condition in Conjunctive Normal Form
--complement
complement each automaton (different strategies are used)
--complement-acceptance
complement the acceptance condition (without touching the automaton)
--decompose-scc=t|w|s|N|aN, --decompose-strength=t|w|s|N|aN
extract the (t) terminal, (w) weak, or (s) strong part of an automaton or (N) the subautomaton leading to the Nth SCC, or (aN) to the Nth accepting SCC (option can be combined with commas to extract multiple parts)
--destut
allow less stuttering
--dnf-acceptance
put the acceptance condition in Disjunctive Normal Form
--dualize
dualize each automaton
--exclusive-ap=AP,AP,...
if any of those APs occur in the automaton, restrict all edges to ensure two of them may not be true at the same time. Use this option multiple times to declare independent groups of exclusive propositions.
--generalized-rabin[=unique-inf|share-inf],
--gra[=unique-inf|share-inf]
rewrite the acceptance condition as generalized Rabin; the default "unique-inf" option uses the generalized Rabin definition from the HOA format; the "share-inf" option allows clauses to share Inf sets, therefore reducing the number of sets
--generalized-streett[=unique-fin|share-fin],
--gsa[=unique-fin|share-fin]
rewrite the acceptance condition as generalized Streett; the "share-fin" option allows clauses to share Fin sets, therefore reducing the number of sets; the default "unique-fin" does not
--instut[=1|2]
allow more stuttering (two possible algorithms)
--keep-states=NUM[,NUM...]
only keep specified states. The first state will be the new initial state. Implies --remove-unreachable-states.
--mask-acc=NUM[,NUM...]
remove all transitions in specified acceptance sets
--merge-transitions
merge transitions with same destination and acceptance
--product=FILENAME, --product-and=FILENAME
build the product with the automaton in FILENAME to intersect languages
--product-or=FILENAME
build the product with the automaton in FILENAME to sum languages
--randomize[=s|t]
randomize states and transitions (specify ’s’ or ’t’ to randomize only states or transitions)
--remove-ap=AP[=0|=1][,AP...]
remove atomic propositions either by existential quantification, or by assigning them 0 or 1
--remove-dead-states
remove states that are unreachable, or that cannot belong to an infinite path
--remove-fin
rewrite the automaton without using Fin acceptance
--remove-unreachable-states
remove states that are unreachable from the initial state
--remove-unused-ap
remove declared atomic propositions that are not used
--sat-minimize[=options]
minimize the automaton using a SAT solver (only works for deterministic automata). Supported options are acc=STRING, states=N, max-states=N, sat-incr=N, sat-incr-steps=N, sat-langmap, sat-naive, colored, preproc=N. Spot uses by default its PicoSAT distribution but an external SATsolver can be set thanks to the SPOT_SATSOLVER environment variable(see spot-x).
--separate-sets
if both Inf(x) and Fin(x) appear in the acceptance condition, replace Fin(x) by a new Fin(y) and adjust the automaton
--simplify-acceptance
simplify the acceptance condition by merging identical acceptance sets and by simplifying some terms containing complementary sets
--simplify-exclusive-ap
if --exclusive-ap is used, assume those AP groups are actually exclusive in the system to simplify the expression of transition labels (implies --merge-transitions)
--split-edges
split edges into transitions labeled by conjunctions of all atomic propositions, so they can be read as letters
--streett-like
convert to an automaton with Streett-like acceptance. Works only with acceptance condition in DNF
--strip-acceptance
remove the acceptance condition and all acceptance sets
--sum=FILENAME, --sum-or=FILENAME
build the sum with the automaton in FILENAME to sum languages
--sum-and=FILENAME
build the sum with the automaton in FILENAME to intersect languages
--highlight-accepting-run[=NUM]
highlight one accepting run using color NUM
--highlight-languages
highlight states that recognize identical languages
--highlight-nondet[=NUM]
highlight nondeterministic states and edges with color NUM
--highlight-nondet-edges[=NUM]
highlight nondeterministic edges with color NUM
--highlight-nondet-states[=NUM]
highlight nondeterministic states with color NUM
--highlight-word=[NUM,]WORD
highlight one run matching WORD using color NUM
-a, --any
no preference, do not bother making it small or deterministic
-D, --deterministic
prefer deterministic automata (combine with --generic to be sure to obtain a deterministic automaton)
--small
prefer small automata
--high |
all available optimizations (slow) |
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--low |
minimal optimizations (fast) |
--medium
moderate optimizations
If any option among --small, --deterministic, or --any is given, then the simplification level defaults to --high unless specified otherwise. If any option among --low, --medium, or --high is given, then the simplification goal defaults to --small unless specified otherwise. If none of those options are specified, then autfilt acts as is --any --low were given: these actually disable the simplification routines.
--seed=INT
seed for the random number generator (0)
-x, --extra-options=OPTS
fine-tuning options (see spot-x (7))
--help |
print this help |
--version
print program version
Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional for any corresponding short options.
0 |
if some automata were output |
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1 |
if no automata were output (no match) |
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2 |
if any error has been reported |
By default, SAT-based minimization executes a binary search, checking N/2 etc. The upper bound being N (the size of the starting automaton), the lower bound is always 1 except when sat-langmap option is used. |
acc=DOUBLEQUOTEDSTRING
DOUBLEQUOTEDSTRING is an acceptance formula in the HOA syntax, or a parametrized acceptance name (the different acc-name: options from HOA).
colored
force all transitions (or all states if -S is used) to belong to exactly one acceptance condition.
max-states=M
M is an upper-bound on the maximum number of states of the constructed automaton.
sat-incr=M
use an incremental approach for SAT-based minimization algorithm. M can be either 1 or 2. They correspond respectively to -x sat-minimize=2 and -x sat-minimize=3 options. They restart the encoding only after (N-1)-sat-incr-steps states have been won. Each iterations of both starts by encoding the research of an N-1 automaton, N being the size of the starting automaton. 1 uses Picosat assumptions. It additionally assumes that the last sat-incr-steps states are unnecessary. On failure, it relax the assumptions to do a binary search between N-1 and (N-1)-sat-incr-steps. sat-incr-steps defaults to 6. 2, as for it, after an N-1 state automaton has been found, uses incremental solving for the next sat-incr-steps iterations by forbidding the usage of an additional state without reencoding the problem again. A full encoding occurs after sat-incr-steps iterations unless sat-incr-steps=-1 (see SPOT_XCNF environment variable described in spot-x). It defaults to 2.
sat-incr-steps=M
set the value of sat-incr-steps to M. This is used by sat-incr option.
sat-naive
use the naive algorithm to find a smaller automaton. It starts from N (N being the size of the starting automaton) and then checks N-1, N-2, etc. until the last successful check.
sat-langmap
Find the lower bound of default sat-minimize procedure (1). This relies on the fact that the size of the minimal automaton is at least equal to the total number of different languages recognized by the automaton’s states.
states=M
M is a fixed number of states to use in the result (all the states needs not be accessible in the result. Therefore, the output might be smaller nonetheless). The SAT-based procedure is just used once to synthesize one automaton, and no further minimization is attempted.
The following papers are related to some of the transformations implemented in autfilt.
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Etienne Renault, Alexandre Duret-Lutz, Fabrice Kordon, and Denis Poitrenaud: Strength-based decomposition of the property Büchi automaton for faster model checking. Proceedings of TACAS’13. LNCS 7795. |
The --strength-decompose option implements the definitions given in the above paper.
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František Blahoudek, Alexandre Duret-Lutz, Vojtčech Rujbr, and Jan Strejček: On refinement of Büchi automata for explicit model checking. Proceedings of SPIN’15. LNCS 9232. |
That paper gives the motivation for options --exclusive-ap and --simplify-exclusive-ap.
• |
Thibaud Michaud and Alexandre Duret-Lutz: Practical stutter-invariance checks for ω-regular languages. Proceedings of SPIN’15. LNCS 9232. |
Describes the algorithms used by the --destut and --instut options. These options correpond respectively to cl() and sl() in the paper.
• |
Souheib Baarir and Alexandre Duret-Lutz: SAT-based minimization of deterministic ω-automata. Proceedings of LPAR’15 (a.k.a LPAR-20). LNCS 9450. |
Describes the --sat-minimize option.
Report bugs to <spot@lrde.epita.fr>.
Copyright
© 2019 Laboratoire de Recherche et Développement
de l’Epita. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later.
This is free software: you are free to change and
redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by law.
spot-x(7) dstar2tgba(1)