Table of Contents


ltlsynt - reactive synthesis from LTL specifications


ltlsynt [OPTION...]


Synthesize a controller from its LTL specification.
, --formula=STRING

process the formula STRING

-F, --file=FILENAME[/COL]

process each line of FILENAME as a formula; if COL is a positive integer, assume a CSV file and read column COL; use a negative COL to drop the first line of the CSV file


read all formulas using LBT’s prefix syntax


parenthesized blocks that cannot be parsed as subformulas are considered as atomic properties

Input options:


comma-separated list of uncontrollable (a.k.a. input) atomic propositions


comma-separated list of controllable (a.k.a. output) atomic propositions

Output format:

-8, --utf8

enable UTF-8 characters in output (ignored with --lbtt or --spin)


test for the additional property PROP and output the result in the HOA format (implies -H). PROP may be some prefix of ’all’ (default), ’unambiguous’, ’stutter-invariant’, ’stutter-sensitive-example’, ’semi-determinism’, or ’strength’.

-d, --dot[=1|a|A|b|B|c|C(COLOR)|e|E|f(FONT)|h|k|K|n|N|o|r|R|s|t|u|v|y|

GraphViz’s format. Add letters for (1) force numbered states, (a) show acceptance condition (default), (A) hide acceptance condition, (b) acceptance sets as bullets, (B) bullets except for Büchi/co-Büchi automata, (c) force circular nodes, (C) color nodes with COLOR, (d) show origins when known, (e) force elliptic nodes, (E) force rEctangular nodes, (f(FONT)) use FONT, (g) hide edge labels, (h) horizontal layout, (k) use state labels when possible, (K) use transition labels (default), (n) show name, (N) hide name, (o) ordered transitions, (r) rainbow colors for acceptance sets, (R) color acceptance sets by Inf/Fin, (s) with SCCs, (t) force transition-based acceptance, (u) hide true states, (v) vertical layout, (y) split universal edges by color, (+INT) add INT to all set numbers, (<INT) display at most INT states, (#) show internal edge numbers

-H, --hoaf[=1.1|i|k|l|m|s|t|v]

Output the automaton in HOA format (default). Add letters to select (1.1) version 1.1 of the format, (i) use implicit labels for complete deterministic automata, (s) prefer state-based acceptance when possible [default], (t) force transition-based acceptance, (m) mix state and transition-based acceptance, (k) use state labels when possible, (l) single-line output, (v) verbose properties


LBTT’s format (add =t to force transition-based acceptance even on Büchi automata)


set the name of the output automaton

-o, --output=FORMAT

send output to a file named FORMAT instead of standard output. The first automaton sent to a file truncates it unless FORMAT starts with ’>>’.

-q, --quiet

suppress all normal output

-s, --spin[=6|c]

Spin neverclaim (implies --ba). Add letters to select (6) Spin’s 6.2.4 style, (c) comments on states

--stats=FORMAT, --format=FORMAT

output statistics about the automaton

Fine tuning:


choose the algorithm for synthesis:

- sd:

translate to tgba, split, then

determinize (default)

- ds: translate to tgba, determinize, then


- ps: translate to dpa, then split - lar: translate to a deterministic automaton

with arbitrary acceptance condition, then use LAR

to turn to parity, then split

- lar.old:

old version of LAR, for


Output options:


prints the winning strategy as an AIGER circuit


print the parity game in the pgsolver format, do not solve it


realizability only, do not compute a winning strategy

Miscellaneous options:


output statistics as CSV in FILENAME or on standard output (if ’>>’ is used to request append mode, the header line is not output)


print this help


verbose mode


print program version

-x, --extra-options=OPTS

fine-tuning options (see spot-x (7))

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional for any corresponding short options.

Exit status:


if the input problem is realizable


if the input problem is not realizable


if any error has been reported


If you would like to give a reference to this tool in an article, we suggest you cite the following paper:

Thibaud Michaud, Maximilien Colange: Reactive Synthesis from LTL Specification with Spot. Proceedings of SYNT@CAV’18.


Report bugs to <spot@lrde.epita.fr>.


Copyright © 2021 Laboratoire de Recherche et Développement de l’Epita. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.