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randltl

This tool generates random formulas. By default, it will generate one random LTL formula using atomic propositions supplied on the command-line. It can be instructed to generate random Boolean or PSL formulas instead, but let us first focus on LTL generation.

For instance to obtain fave random LTL formula over the propositions a, b, or c, use:

randltl -n5 a b c
0
0 R b
F(XG(F!b M Fb) W (b R a))
F(a R !c)
G(a | Fb) W (FGb R !b)

Note that the result does not always use all atomic propositions.

If you do not care about how the atomic propositions are named, you can give a nonnegative number instead:

randltl -n5 3
0
0 R p1
F(XG(F!p1 M Fp1) W (p1 R p0))
F(p0 R !p2)
G(p0 | Fp1) W (FGp1 R !p1)

The syntax of the formula output can be changed using the common output options:

-0, --zero-terminated-output   separate output formulas with \0 instead of \n
                           (for use with xargs -0)
-8, --utf8                 output using UTF-8 characters
    --format=FORMAT, --stats=FORMAT
                           specify how each line should be output (default:
                           "%f")
-l, --lbt                  output in LBT's syntax
    --latex                output using LaTeX macros
-o, --output=FORMAT        send output to a file named FORMAT instead of
                           standard output.  The first formula sent to a file
                           truncates it unless FORMAT starts with '>>'.
-p, --full-parentheses     output fully-parenthesized formulas
-s, --spin                 output in Spin's syntax
    --spot                 output in Spot's syntax (default)
    --wring                output in Wring's syntax

When you select Spin's or Wring's syntax, operators W and M are automatically rewritten using U and R (written V for Spin). When you select LBT's syntax, you should name you atomic propositions like p0, p1, etc… (Atomic proposition named differently will be output by Spot in double-quotes, but this is not supported by LBT.)

randltl -l 12
randltl -8 12
randltl -s 12
randltl --wring 12
V f W V G p5 p7 p10
0 R ((□p5 R p7) W p10)
false V (p10 V (p10 || ([]p5 V p7)))
(FALSE) R ((p10=1) R ((p10=1) + ((G(p5=1)) R (p7=1))))

As you might guess from the above result, for a given set of atomic propositions (and on the same computer) the generated formula will always be the same. This is because each time randltl starts, it initializes the seed of the random number generator to 0. This seed can be changed using the --seed option. For instance the following three commands:

randltl a b c
randltl --seed=123 a b c
randltl --seed=0 a b c

Will give three formulas in which the first and last are identical:

0
1
0

When generating random formulas, we usually want large quantity of them. Rather than running randltl several times with different seeds, we can use the -n option to specify a number of formulas to produce as seen in the very first example of this page.

By default randltl will never output the same formula twice (this can be changed with the --allow-dups option), so it may generate more formulas internally than it eventually prints. To ensure termination, for each output formula the number of ignored (because duplicated) random formulas that are generated is limited to 100000. Therefore in some situations, most likely when generating small formulas, with few atomic proposition, you may see randltl stop before the requested number of formulas has been output with an error message.

If the integer passed to -n is negative, randltl will attempt to generate as many formulas as it can. This is most useful when randltl is piped to ltlfilt to select random formulas matching a certain criterion, as we shall see later.

Besides the list of atomic propositions (a b c in our example) and the seed, several other parameters control the generation of the random formulas.

Initially, the random generator selects a tree size for the formula. The default size is 15, but it can be changed using the --tree-size option. For instance in the following, for each formula the tree size will be chosen randomly in the range 22..30.

randltl -n 5 a b c --tree-size=22..30
c R (!Fa M Xc)
!(FGc <-> (c <-> Ga)) -> ((Ga W Fa) M F(c W a))
G(((a xor Fc) W (G(a | b) R (b <-> !b))) <-> (b M 1))
0
1

The tree size is just the number of nodes in the syntax tree of the formula during its construction. However because Spot automatically applies some trivial simplifications during the construction of its formulas (e.g., F(F(a) is reduced to F(a), a&0 to 0, etc.), the actual size of the formula output may be smaller than the tree size specified.

It is pretty common to obtain the formulas 0 or 1 among the first formulas output, since many random formulas trivially simplify to these. However because duplicate formulas are suppressed by default, they shall only occur once.

Stronger simplifications may be requested using the -r option, that implements many rewritings that helps Spot translators algorithms (so beware that using -r reduces the randomness of the output).

randltl -n 5 a b c --tree-size=22..30 -r
c R (G!a M Xc)
Fa | (FGc & ((c & Ga) | (!c & F!a))) | (GF!c & ((c & F!a) | (!c & Ga)))
G((Fb & G((a & G!c) | (!a & Fc))) | (G!b & F((a & Fc) | (!a & G!c))))
0
1

The generator build the syntax tree recursively from its root, by considering all operators that could be used for a given tree size (for example a tree-size of 2 disables binary operators). A priority is associated to each operator, and the probability of this operator being selected is this priority over the sum of the priorities of all considered operators. The default priorities for each operator can be seen with --dump-priorities:

randltl a b c --dump-priorities
Use --ltl-priorities to set the following LTL priorities:
ap	3
false	1
true	1
not	1
F	1
G	1
X	1
equiv	1
implies	1
xor	1
R	1
U	1
W	1
M	1
and	1
or	1

Where ap stands for atomic propositions (a, b, c). In this example, when the generator builds a leaf of the syntax tree (i.e., a subformula of tree-size 1), it must ignore all operators, and chose between ap, false, or true, and the odds of choosing ap is 3/(3+1+1).

As indicated at the top of the output, these priorities can be changed using the --ltl-priorities options. The most common scenario is to disable some of the operators by giving them a null priority. The following example disables 6 operators, and augments the priority of U to 3 to favor its occurrence.

randltl -n 5 a b c --ltl-priorities 'xor=0,implies=0,equiv=0,W=0,M=0,X=0,U=3'
0
b
1
!F(1 U ((a U c) U b))
1 U G!b

When using -r to simplify generated formulas, beware that these rewritings may use operators that you disabled during the initial random generation: you may obtain a formula that uses W even if W has a null priority. (You can use ltlfilt to rewrite these operators if that is a problem.)

If the --weak-fairness option is used, for each random formula generated, a weak-fairness formula of the form GF(a) & GF(b) & GF(c) is generated for a subset of the atomic propositions and "ANDed" to the random formula. The --tree-size option has no influence on the weak-fairness formula appended.

randltl -n 5 a b c --weak-fairness
0
(!Fb | F!Fc) & GFa & GFb & GFc
GFa & GFb & GFc & F(a xor b)
(a | b) & GFa & GFb & GFc & (Ga -> Gc)
GFa & GFb & GFc & (GXb U (Fc U (Fc | (a R b))))

Boolean formulas may be output with the -B option:

randltl -B -n 5 a b c
!(b -> !c)
c xor (b | c)
!(a & (a xor b))
0
!b -> c

In that case, priorities should be set with --boolean-priorities.

Finally, PSL formulas may be output using the -P option. However keep in mind that since LTL formulas are PSL formulas, generating random PSL formula may produce many LTL formulas that do not use any PSL operator (this is even more so the case when simplifications are enabled with -r).

randltl -P -n 5 a b c
0
b
!(a W b)
1
(a U !b) <-> (!a -> Gb)

As shown with the --dump-priorities output below, tweaking the priorities used to generated PSL formulas requires three different options:

randltl -P a b c --dump-priorities
Use --ltl-priorities to set the following LTL priorities:
ap	3
false	1
true	1
not	1
F	1
G	1
X	1
Closure	1
equiv	1
implies	1
xor	1
R	1
U	1
W	1
M	1
and	1
or	1
EConcat	1
UConcat	1
Use --sere-priorities to set the following SERE priorities:
eword	1
boolform	1
star	1
star_b	1
fstar	1
fstar_b	1
and	1
andNLM	1
or	1
concat	1
fusion	1
Use --boolean-priorities to set the following Boolean formula priorities:
ap	3
false	1
true	1
not	1
equiv	1
implies	1
xor	1
and	1
or	1

The --ltl-priorities option we have seen previously now recognize some new PSL-specific operators: Closure is the {sere} operator, EConcat is the {sere}<>->f operator, and UConcat is the {sere}[]->f operator. When these operator are selected, they require a SERE argument which is generated according to the priorities set by --sere-priorities: eword is the empty word, boolform is a Boolean formula (generated using the priorities set by --boolean-priorities), star is the unbounded Kleen star, while star_b is the bounded version, and andNLM is the non-length-matching variant of the and operator.