# Working with LTL formulas with finite semantics

## Table of Contents

The LTL operators used by Spot are defined over infinite words, and the various type of automata supported are all ω-automata, i.e., automata over infinite words.

However there is a trick we can use in case we want to use Spot to build a finite automaton that recognize some LTLf (i.e. LTL with finite semantics) property. The plan is as follows:

- Have Spot read the input LTLf formula as if it was LTL.
- Rewrite this formula in a way that embeds the semantics of LTLf in
LTL. First, introduce a new atomic proposition
`alive`

that will be true initially, but that will eventually become false forever. Then adjust all original LTL operators so that they have to be satisfied during the`alive`

part of the word. For instance the formula`(a U b) & Fc`

would be transformed into`alive & (a U (alive & b)) & F(alive & c) & (alive U G!alive)`

. Convert the resulting formula into a Büchi automaton:

Remove the

`alive`

property, and, while we are at it, simplify the Büchi automaton:- Interpret the above automaton as finite automaton. (This part is out of scope for Spot.)

The above sequence of operations was described by De Giacomo & Vardi
in their IJCAI'13 paper and by Dutta & Vardi in their Memocode'14
paper. However, beware that the LTLf to LTL rewriting suggested in
theorem 1 of the IJCAI'13 paper has a typo (`t(φ₁ U φ₂)`

should be
equal to `t(φ₁) U t(φ₂ & alive)`

) that is fixed in the Memocode'14
paper, but that second paper forgets to ensure that `alive`

holds
initially, as required in the first paper…

## Shell version

The first four steps of the above sequence of operations can be
executed as follows. Transforming LTLf to LTL can be done using
`ltlfilt`

's `--from-ltlf`

option, translating the resulting formula
into a Büchi automaton is obviously done with `ltl2tgba`

, and removing
an atomic proposition from an automaton can be done using `autfilt`

's
`--remove-ap`

option (adding `--small`

will also simplify the
automaton). Interpreting the resulting Büchi automaton as a finite
automaton is out of scope for Spot.

```
ltlfilt --from-ltlf -f "(a U b) & Fc" |
ltl2tgba -B |
autfilt --remove-ap=alive -B --small
```

HOA: v1 States: 4 Start: 1 AP: 3 "b" "a" "c" acc-name: Buchi Acceptance: 1 Inf(0) properties: trans-labels explicit-labels state-acc deterministic properties: terminal --BODY-- State: 0 [!2] 0 [2] 3 State: 1 [0&!2] 0 [!0&1&!2] 1 [!0&1&2] 2 [0&2] 3 State: 2 [!0&1] 2 [0] 3 State: 3 {0} [t] 3 --END--

Use `-B -D`

instead of `-B`

if you want to ensure that a deterministic
automaton is output.

## Python version

In Python, we use the `from_ltlf()`

function to convert from LTLf to
LTL and translate the result into a Büchi automaton using
`translate()`

as usual. Then we need to use the `remove_ap()`

object,
which we must first setup with some atomic propositions to remove.
Finally we call the `postprocess()`

function for automata
simplifications. (Note that `postprocess()`

is already called by
`translate()`

, but in this case removing the atomic proposition allows
more simplification opportunities.)

import spot # Translate LTLf to Büchi. aut = spot.from_ltlf('(a U b) & Fc').translate('ba') # Remove "alive" atomic proposition rem = spot.remove_ap() rem.add_ap('alive') aut = rem.strip(aut) # Simplify result and print it. Use postprocess('ba', 'det') # if you always want a deterministic automaton. aut = spot.postprocess(aut, 'ba') print(aut.to_str('hoa'))

HOA: v1 States: 4 Start: 1 AP: 3 "b" "a" "c" acc-name: Buchi Acceptance: 1 Inf(0) properties: trans-labels explicit-labels state-acc deterministic properties: terminal --BODY-- State: 0 [!2] 0 [2] 3 State: 1 [0&!2] 0 [!0&1&!2] 1 [!0&1&2] 2 [0&2] 3 State: 2 [!0&1] 2 [0] 3 State: 3 {0} [t] 3 --END--

If you need to print the automaton in a custom format (some finite automaton format probably), you should check our example of custom print of an automaton.

## C++ version

The C++ version is straightforward adaptation of the Python version.
The Python functions `translate()`

and `postprocess()`

are convenient
wrappers around the `spot::translator`

and `spot::postprocessor`

objects that we need to use here.

#include <iostream> #include <spot/tl/parse.hh> #include <spot/tl/ltlf.hh> #include <spot/twaalgos/translate.hh> #include <spot/twaalgos/hoa.hh> #include <spot/twaalgos/remprop.hh> int main() { spot::parsed_formula pf = spot::parse_infix_psl("(a U b) & Fc"); if (pf.format_errors(std::cerr)) return 1; spot::translator trans; trans.set_type(spot::postprocessor::BA); trans.set_pref(spot::postprocessor::Small); spot::twa_graph_ptr aut = trans.run(spot::from_ltlf(pf.f)); spot::remove_ap rem; rem.add_ap("alive"); aut = rem.strip(aut); spot::postprocessor post; post.set_type(spot::postprocessor::BA); post.set_pref(spot::postprocessor::Small); // or ::Deterministic aut = post.run(aut); print_hoa(std::cout, aut) << '\n'; return 0; }

HOA: v1 States: 4 Start: 1 AP: 3 "b" "a" "c" acc-name: Buchi Acceptance: 1 Inf(0) properties: trans-labels explicit-labels state-acc deterministic properties: terminal --BODY-- State: 0 [!2] 0 [2] 3 State: 1 [0&!2] 0 [!0&1&!2] 1 [!0&1&2] 2 [0&2] 3 State: 2 [!0&1] 2 [0] 3 State: 3 {0} [t] 3 --END--

Again, please check our example of custom print of an automaton if you need to print in some format for NFA/DFA.

## Final notes

Spot only deals with infinite behaviors, so if you plan to use Spot to
perform some LTLf model checking, you should stop at step 3. Keep the
`alive`

proposition in your property automaton, and also add it to the
Kripke structure representing your system.

Alternatively, if your Kripke structure is already equipped with some
`dead`

property (as introduced by default in our `ltsmin`

interface),
you could replace `alive`

by `!dead`

by using ```
ltlfilt
--from-ltl="!dead"
```

(from the command-line), a running
`from_ltlf(f, "!dead")`

in Python or C++.

When working with LTLf, there are two different semantics for the next operator:

- The weak next:
`X a`

is true if`a`

hold in the next step or if there are no next step. In particular,`X(0)`

is true iff there are no successor. (By the way, you cannot write`X0`

because that as an atomic proposition: use`X(0)`

or`X 0`

.) - The strong next:
`X[!] a`

is true if`a`

hold in the next step**and**there must be a next step. In particular`X[!]1`

asserts that there is a successor.